pedagogical content knowledge shulman

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$V���2�ˁ�(�A�q�r!�5���,��1~d�g�cqc�c�b{�l�p��3s��:F��&��h`��2�d�g�aZ Teachers must learn to use their knowledge base to provide the grounds for choices and actions” (p. 13). (MY THOUGHTS – The scholar from the practitioner with the ideal blend in teacher education being scholarly practitioners?/ Blue Ribbon Panel Report requires teacher educators to be practitioners. This idea represents a new, broader perspective in our understanding o… Summary: In this essay, Shulman makes a case that teaching has a knowledge base. the most regularly taught topics in one's subject area, the most useful forms of representation of those ideas, the most powerful analogies, illustrations, examples, explanations, and demonstrations - in a word, the ways of representing the subject that make it comprehensible to others. THE TEACHER In recent years the profession of teaching has reached a maturity to the point of being considered a producer of own knowledge necessary to the practice. Shulman, L. (1987). A second kind of content knowledge is pedagogical knowledge, which goes beyond knowledge of subject matter per se to the dimension of subject matter knowledge for teaching. Shulman (1987) calls this pedagogical content knowledge. The paucity of research on content teaching in a divers… We are following his lead by studying those just learning to teach. “Indeed, our exemplary teachers present ideas in order to provoke the constructive processes of their students and not to incur student dependence on teachers or to stimulate the flatteries of imitation” (pp. Because teachers necessarily function within a matrix created by these elements, using and being used by them it stands to reason that the principles, policies, and facts of their function comprise a major source for the knowledge base” (p. 9). Summary: In this essay, Shulman makes a case that teaching has a knowledge base. 13-14). (MY THOUGHTS – I could write the paper on Helen and knowledge using this as a rationale). ). . h�b```a``����� �� Ā B@V �8���� `Q���p瀦�7�ÎN9Ɍ��.hx����050���{��������a�v�з)/>td�$V{�T��n3ػ��F�խQFs���nl�ռ���eۡ�=��[����o/>��x�y�!��k7��g��s�m;&���ѫۙ~S�w��]�y�c�!���V?�rR``N� �0ŠV��aq� B`ND5��&� “Wisdom of practice. (MY THOUGHTS – He is giving a rationale for content expertise for those who observe teaching practices.). He claims that these compose what he calls pedagogical content knowledge, and in this article, he articles what teachers should “know, do, understand, or profess” (p.4), something previously assumed and unarticulated in the rhetoric of educational reformers regarding the knowledge base of teaching. Shulman, L. (1987). “Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue” (p. 8). It is different from the knowledge of a disciplinary expert and from general pedagogical knowledge. “Fenstermacher (1978, 1986) provides a useful framework for analysis. (MY THOUGHTS – I could use that rationale for studying those who are learning to supervise.). He argues that teaching requires knowledge of the content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge o Thus, teaching necessarily begins with a teacher’s understanding of what is to be learned and how it is to be taught” (p. 7). He stated that teacher-training programs were separating the what (content) from the how (pedagogy) when preparing teachers for the field. Their development from students to teachers, from a state of expertise as learners through a novitiate a teachers exposes and highlights the complex bodies of knowledge and skill needed to function effectively as a teacher” (p. 4). During his early years at Stanford University, Shulman engaged in a longitudinal study of knowledge growth in teaching, funded by the resume sample harvard business school. (MY THOUGHTS – Rationale for contextually-specific knowledge or cultural knowledge). 4-14 . Pedagogical Content Knowledge. Carlsen, 1987; Grossman, Wilson, & Shulman, 1989; Gudmundsdottir, 1987a, 1987b; Gudmundsdottir & Shulman, 1987; Marks, 1990). Shulman defined pedagogical content knowledge as teachers’ interpretations and transformations of subject-matter knowledge in the context of facilitating student learning. ), “But if a teacher has to ‘know the territory’ of teaching, then it is the landscape of such materials, institutions, organizations, and mechanisms that which he or she must be familiar” (p. 9). . 2 (Feb., 1986), pp. Pedagogical content knowledge includes . So they need to know what makes learning specific topics easy or difficult. In addition to teachers' subject matter (content) knowledge and their general knowledge of instructional methods (pedagogical knowledge),pedagogical content knowledge was originally suggested as a third major component of teaching expertise, by Lee Shulman (1986; 1987) and his colleagues and students (e.g. p9: Pedagogical Content Knowledge. (MY THOUGHTS – Can we create these descriptions of PSTs and developing expertise? This is or should be a goal fo supervision. “He (Piaget) discovered that he could learn a great deal about knowledge and its development from careful observation of the very young – those who were just beginning to develop and organize their intelligence. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. What are the implications for teaching policy and educational reform? “Perhaps the most enduring and powerful scholarly influences on teachers are those that enrich their images of the possible: their visions of what constitutes good education, ro what a well-educated youngster might look like if provided with appropriate opportunities and stimulation” (p. 10).

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