Capitalizing on R&D investments using IP protection is just one part of the research-to-marketplace continuum. The insects soon die as a result of pores which are created in the gut cell membrane. This study contains a systematic review of the literature on consumer acceptance of, and willingness-to-pay for, GM crops with enhanced vitamin levels. Arie Altman, Paul Michael Hasegawa, in Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture, 2012. Afterward, a case study on how to conduct an FTO analysis will be presented. These issues are critical for small private companies attempting to enter this sector but can also be important for public or not-for-profit research institutions. tritici Ugg99 from wild relatives. A third technology that falls under the umbrella of genetic engineering is RNA interference, or RNAi technology. Most plant biotechnology laboratories routinely use patented technologies in their research without permissions. Philipp Aerni, in Genetically Modified Organisms in Food, 2016. By signing the BiOS license, a researcher or an institution agrees to contribute back to the pool, for free distribution, data on the use of the technology and the patent rights to any improvements made to the technology. Serves as a national resource for molecular biology information by providing public databases and software tools to analyze genome data, and by disseminating biomedical research information. Based on an structure and characteristics of DNA, scientists have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity. Unlike molecular plant breeding, however, recombinant DNA technology results in new traits that cannot be achieved by conventional ways. This can be achieved in part by modern molecular plant breeding techniques such as marker-assisted selection (MAS). Issue: Food and agricultural biotechnologies have demanded new interpretations of longstanding policies in food safety, environmental impact and animal health. There is a growing alarm about the genetically engineered crops and its environment effects on food chain. Moreover, the institutional, regulatory regimes, especially those that affect agricultural R&D IP, are also undergoing rapid change and providing enhanced incentives for applications of biotechnology in agriculture. Though, acceptance of such technologies has consequences, there is need for creating biosafety regulatory systems to decrease and eradicate possible potential risks arising from agricultural biotechnology on flora and fauna. Hans De Steur, ... Xavier Gellynck, in Genetically Modified Organisms in Food, 2016. Key concerns about biotechnology include safeguarding technology, labeling, laws, regulations, patents, and research. Cisgenic plants, or plants that express genes from close wild relatives, are also being generated to obtain resistance genes which were lost over years of crop domestication. NIH. It should also be noted that many varieties of crops available today have been generated using mutagenesis breeding. In the agricultural sector, R&D is unique among industries in at least two aspects: the truly global reach of a majority of agricultural R&D; and the historical success of what has been largely a public enterprise. Such an infrastructure is not needed for either discovery or production of many products in biotechnology. At the very heart of the extreme religious critique is the notion that scientists are “playing God.” Religious beliefs are beyond the present discussion and are difficult to argue. Bioenergy and Biofuels; Biotechnology; Production Technology and Agricultural Engineering Transgenic Bt corn is an outstanding example of successful application of genetic engineering in agriculture. Private enterprises contribute roughly one-third of global agricultural R&D expenditures, whereas public research institutions make up the other two-thirds, which is evenly split between developed and developing countries (Pardey and Beintema, 2001). The anticipated benefits of a collective IP management regime are to enable an effective assessment of FTO issues, to overcome the fragmentation of public sector IPR and reestablish the necessary FTO in agricultural biotechnology for the public good, and to enhance private sector interactions by more efficiently identifying collective commercial licensing opportunities. The infrastructure of Borlag's green revolution is still in place and is well suited for implementation of advances in biotechnology. Bananas have received considerable research attention of late as a vehicle for vaccine delivery, because of their palatability and adaptation to tropical and subtropical environments. These sectors offer new business opportunities that, like the first wave of Ag Biotech, enable entrepreneurs to think about creating disruptive businesses, not just disruptive technologies for today’s business models. Bennett, in Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems, 2014.
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